Law on Copyrights and Related Rights

ដើម្បីការពារផលប្រយោជន៍របស់អ្នកនិពន្ធ ដើម្បីការពារនូវតម្លៃវប្បធម៍, ដើម្បីការអភិវឌ្ឍសេដ្ឋកិច្ចជាតិ និង ដើម្បីធ្វើសមាហរណកម្មសេដ្ឋកិច្ចកម្ពុជា ចូលទៅក្នុងរបស់ពិភពលោកប្រទេសកម្ពុជាបានអនុម័តច្បាប់ស្តីពីសិទ្ធិអ្នកនិពន្ធ និងសិទ្ធិដែលទាក់ទង។ ច្បាប់នេះត្រូវបានប្រកាសឱ្យប្រើដោយព្រះមហាក្សត្រ នៃព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជានៅថ្ងៃទី 5 ខែមីនាឆ្នាំ 2003 តាមរយៈព្រះរាជក្រឹត្យលេខ 0303/008 ។ ច្បាប់នេះមាន 8 ជំពូកនិង 69 មាត្រា។

In order to safeguard author’s interest, to protect cultural value, to develop national economy and to integrate Cambodia economy into the World’s, Cambodia enacted the law on Copyrights and Related Rights. This law was promulgated by the King of the Kingdom of Cambodia, on the 5th of March 2003, through the Royal Decree NS/RKM/0303/008. The law contains 8 chapters and 69 articles.

សូមទាញយកច្បាប់ Law on Copyrights and Related Rights ដើម្បីអានលម្អិត។

បានផ្សាយ​ក្នុង ចំណេះដឹងទូទៅ | បញ្ចេញមតិ

The Dangers of negotiations

When faced with the severe problems of confronting a dictatorship, some people may lapse back into passive submission. Others, seeing no prospect of achieving democracy, may conclude they must come to terms with the apparently permanent dictatorship, hoping that through “conciliation,” “compromise,” and “negotiations” they might be able to salvage some positive elements and to end the brutalities. On the surface,
lacking realistic options, there is appeal in that line of thinking.

Serious struggle against brutal dictatorships is not a pleasant prospect. Why is it necessary to go that route? Can’t everyone just be reasonable and find ways to talk, to negotiate the way to a gradual end to the dictatorship? Can’t the democrats appeal to the dictators’ sense of common humanity and convince them to reduce their domination bit by bit, and perhaps finally to give way completely to the establishment of a democracy?
It is sometimes argued that the truth is not all on one side. Perhaps the democrats have misunderstood the dictators, who may have acted from good motives in difficult circumstances? Or perhaps some may think, the dictators would gladly remove themselves from the difficult situation facing the country if only given some encouragement and enticements. It may be argued that the dictators could be offered a “win-win” solution, in which everyone gains something.

The risks and pain of further struggle could be unnecessary, it may be argued, if the democratic opposition is only willing to settle the conflict peacefully by negotiations (which may even perhaps be assisted by some skilled individuals or even another government). Would that not be preferable to a difficult struggle, even if it is one
conducted by nonviolent struggle rather than by military war?

Merits and limitations of negotiations

Negotiations are a very useful tool in resolving certain types of issues in conflicts and should not be neglected or rejected when they are appropriate. In some situations where no fundamental issues are at stake, and therefore a compromise is acceptable, negotiations can be an important means to settle a conflict. A labor strike for higher wages
is a good example of the appropriate role of negotiations in a conflict: a negotiated settlement may provide an increase somewhere between the sums originally proposed by each of the contending sides. Labor conflicts with legal trade unions are, however, quite different than the conflicts in which the continued existence of a cruel dictatorship
or the establishment of political freedom are at stake. When the issues at stake are fundamental, affecting religious principles, issues of human freedom, or the whole future development of the society, negotiations do not provide a way of reaching a mutually satisfactory solution. On some basic issues there should be no compromise. Only a shift in power relations in favor of the democrats can adequately safeguard the basic issues at stake. Such a shift will occur through struggle, not negotiations. This is not to say that negotiations ought never to be used. The point here is that negotiations are not a realistic way to remove a strong dictatorship in the absence of a powerful democratic opposition.
Negotiations, of course, may not be an option at all. Firmly entrenched dictators who feel secure in their position may refuse to negotiate with their democratic opponents. Or, when negotiations have been initiated, the democratic negotiators may disappear and
never be heard from again. negotiated surrender?

Individuals and groups who oppose dictatorship and favor negotiations will often have good motives. Especially when a military struggle has continued for years against a brutal dictatorship without final victory, it is understandable that all the people of whatever political persuasion would want peace. Negotiations are especially likely to become an issue among democrats where the dictators have clear military superiority and the destruction and casualties among one’s own people are no longer bearable. There will then be a strong temptation to explore any other route that might salvage some of the democrats’ objectives while bringing an end to the cycle of violence and counter-violence.

The offer by a dictatorship of “peace” through negotiations with the democratic opposition is, of course, rather disingenuous. The violence could be ended immediately by the dictators themselves, if only they would stop waging war on their own people. They could at their own initiative without any bargaining restore respect for human dignity and rights, free political prisoners, end torture, halt military operations, withdraw from the government, and apologize to the people. When the dictatorship is strong but an irritating resistance exists, the dictators may wish to negotiate the opposition into surrender under the guise of making “peace.” The call to negotiate can sound appealing, but grave dangers can be lurking within the negotiating room. On the other hand, when the opposition is exceptionally strong and the dictatorship is genuinely threatened, the dictators may seek negotiations in order to salvage as much of their control or wealth as possible. In neither case should the democrats help the dictators achieve their goals.

Democrats should be wary of the traps that may be deliberately built into a negotiation process by the dictators. The call for negotiations when basic issues of political liberties are involved may be an effort by the dictators to induce the democrats to surrender peacefully while the violence of the dictatorship continues. In those types of conflicts the only proper role of negotiations may occur at the end of a decisive struggle in which the power of the dictators has been effectively destroyed and they seek personal safe passage
to an international airport.

Power and justice in negotiations

If this judgment sounds too harsh a commentary on negotiations, perhaps some of the romanticism associated with them needs to be moderated. Clear thinking is required as to how negotiations operate. “Negotiation” does not mean that the two sides sit down together on a basis of equality and talk through and resolve the differences that produced the conflict between them. Two facts must be remembered. First, in negotiations it is not the relative justice of the conflicting views and objectives that determines the content of a negotiated agreement. Second, the content of a negotiated agreement is largely determined by the power capacity of each side. Several difficult questions must be considered. What can each side do at a later date to gain its objectives if the other side fails to come to an agreement at the negotiating table? What can each side do after an agreement is reached if the other side breaks its word and uses its available forces to seize its objectives despite the agreement?

A settlement is not reached in negotiations through an assessment of the rights and wrongs of the issues at stake. While those may be much discussed, the real results in negotiations come from an assessment of the absolute and relative power situations of the contending groups. What can the democrats do to ensure that their minimum claims cannot be denied? What can the dictators do to stay in control and neutralize the democrats? In other words, if an agreement comes, it is more likely the result of each side estimating how the power capacities of the two sides compare, and then calculating how an open struggle might end. Attention must also be given to what each side is willing to give up in order to reach agreement. In successful negotiations there is compromise, a splitting of differences. Each side gets part of what it wants and gives up part of its objectives.

In the case of extreme dictatorships what are the pro-democracy forces to give up to the dictators? What objectives of the dictators are the pro-democracy forces to accept? Are the democrats to give to the dictators (whether a political party or a military cabal) a constitutionally-established permanent role in the future government? Where is the democracy in that? Even assuming that all goes well in negotiations, it is necessary
to ask: What kind of peace will be the result? Will life then be better or worse than it would be if the democrats began or continued to struggle? “agreeable” dictators Dictators may have a variety of motives and objectives underlying their domination: power, position, wealth, reshaping the society, and the like. One should remember that none of these will be served if they abandon their control positions. In the event of negotiations dictators will try to preserve their goals. Whatever promises offered by dictators in any negotiated settlement, no one should ever forget that the dictators may promise anything to secure submission from their democratic opponents, and then brazenly violate those same agreements.

If the democrats agree to halt resistance in order to gain a reprieve from repression, they may be very disappointed. A halt to resistance rarely brings reduced repression. Once the restraining force of internal and international opposition has been removed, dictators may even make their oppression and violence more brutal than before. The collapse of popular resistance often removes the countervailing force that has limited the control and brutality of the dictatorship. The tyrants can then move ahead against whomever they wish.

“For the tyrant has the power to inflict only that which we lack the strength to resist,”

wrote Krishnalal Shridharani ( Krishnalal Shridharani, War Without Violence: A Study of Gandhi’s Method and Its Accomplishments (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1939, and reprint New York and London: Garland Publishing, 1972), p. 260)

Resistance, not negotiations, is essential for change in conflicts where fundamental issues are at stake. In nearly all cases, resistance must continue to drive dictators out of power. Success is most often determined not by negotiating a settlement but through the wise use of the most appropriate and powerful means of resistance available. It is our contention, to be explored later in more detail, that political defiance, or nonviolent struggle, is the most powerful means available to those struggling for freedom. What kind of peace? If dictators and democrats are to talk about peace at all, extremely clear thinking is needed because of the dangers involved. Not everyone who uses the word “peace” wants peace with freedom and justice. Submission to cruel oppression and passive acquiescence to ruthless dictators who have perpetrated atrocities on hundreds of thousands of people is no real peace. Hitler often called for peace, by which he meant submission to his will. A dictators’ peace is often no more than the peace of the prison or of the grave. There are other dangers. Well-intended negotiators sometimes confuse the objectives of the negotiations and the negotiation process itself. Further, democratic negotiators, or foreign negotiation specialists accepted to assist in the negotiations, may in a single stroke provide the dictators with the domestic and international legitimacy that they had been previously denied because of their seizure of the state, human rights violations, and brutalities. Without that desperately needed legitimacy, the dictators cannot continue to rule indefinitely. Exponents of peace should not provide them legitimacy. reasons for hope As stated earlier, opposition leaders may feel forced to pursue negotiations out of a sense of hopelessness of the democratic struggle. However, that sense of powerlessness can be changed. Dictatorships are not permanent. People living under dictatorships need not remain weak, and dictators need not be allowed to remain powerful
indefinitely.

Aristotle noted long ago, “. . . [O] ligarchy and tyranny
are shorter-lived than any other constitution. . . . [A]ll round, tyrannies have not lasted long.”

(  Aristotle, The Politics, transl. by T. A. Sinclair (Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England and Baltimore, Maryland: Penguin Books 1976 [1962]), Book V, Chapter 12, pp. 231 and 232)

Modern dictatorships are also vulnerable. Their weaknesses can be aggravated and the dictators’ power can be disintegrated. (In Chapter Four we will examine these weaknesses
in more detail.) Recent history shows the vulnerability of dictatorships, and reveals that they can crumble in a relatively short time span: whereas ten years — 1980-1990 — were required to bring down the Communist dictatorship in Poland, in East Germany and Czechoslovakia in 1989 it occurred within weeks. In El Salvador and Guatemala in 1944 the struggles against the entrenched brutal military dictators required approximately two weeks each. The militarily powerful regime of the Shah in Iran was undermined in a few months. The Marcos dictatorship in the Philippines fell before people power within weeks in 1986: the United States government quickly abandoned President Marcos when the strength of the opposition became apparent. The attempted hard-line coup in the Soviet Union in August 1991 was blocked in days by political defiance. Thereafter, many of its long dominated constituent nations in only days, weeks, and months
regained their independence. The old preconception that violent means always work quickly and nonviolent means always require vast time is clearly not valid. Although much time may be required for changes in the underlying situation and society, the actual fight against a dictatorship sometimes occurs relatively quickly by nonviolent struggle. Negotiations are not the only alternative to a continuing war of annihilation on the one hand and capitulation on the other. The examples just cited, as well as those listed in Chapter One, illustrate that another option exists for those who want both peace and freedom: political defiance.

Complete source: Gene Sharp

បានផ្សាយ​ក្នុង ចំណេះដឹងទូទៅ | បញ្ចេញមតិ

តើមានផលប្រយោជន៍អ្វីខ្លះ ជនអន្តោរប្រវេសន៍​វៀតណាមខុសច្បាប់បន្តរស់នៅលើទឹកដីកម្ពុជា?

ខ្ញុំយល់ថា អាណិកជនវៀតណាមដែលរស់នៅកម្ពុជាមិនមានឯកសារគ្រប់គ្រាន់ (រឺហៅអោយស្រួលស្តាប់ គឺមិនស្របច្បាប់) រដ្ឋាភិបាលមិនគួរយល់ព្រមតាមសំណើររបស់ភាគីវៀតណាម បន្តអោយអាណិកជនទាំងនោះរស់នៅដោយស្របច្បាប់នៅក្នុងប្រទេសកម្ពុជាទ្បើយ។

ការដែលជនទាំងនោះចូលមករស់នៅ យ៉ាងគម្លានដោយមិនស្របច្បាប់ ក្នុងប្រទេសមួយដែលមាន អធិបតេយ្យភាព ឯករាជ្យភាព និងនីតិរដ្ឋទៅហើយនោះ តើពួកគេនិងធ្វើការគោរពច្បាប់របស់ប្រទេសនោះដែរឬទេក្នុងរយះពេលនៃការស្នាក់នៅនោះ?ត្រទ្បប់មករឿងជនអន្តោរប្រវេសន៍វៀតណាមខុសច្បាប់ទាំងនោះវិញ តើពួកគេទាំងនោះមករស់នៅក្នុងប្រទេសកម្ពុជា មានផលចំណេញអ្វីខ្លះដល់សេដ្ឋកិច្ចរបស់ប្រទេសយើង? ខ្ញុំមើលមិនឃើញអ្វីដែលជាផលចំណេញដល់ប្រជាពលរដ្ឋខ្មែរយើងទ្បើយ ក្រៅតែអំពី ការដណ្តើមការងាររបស់ប្រជាជនខ្មែរ បង្ករ អសន្តិសុខដល់សង្គមដូចជា អំពើឆក់ ប្លន់ កាប់សម្លាប់ និងការជេរប្រមាថគ្នា។

លើសពីនេះទៅទៀត អ្វីដែលជាកង្វល់ធំបំផុតសម្រាប់ខ្ញុំ ក៏ដូចជាប្រជាជនខ្មែរទាំងមូលនោះគឺ រូបភាពមកតាំងទីលំនៅខុសច្បាប់ប្រកបដោយការឈ្លានពានរបស់វៀតណាមទាំងនោះ វាមិនខុសអ្វីដូចកាលពីសម័យកាលកម្ពុជាក្រោមទ្បើយ។ សូមអានសៀវភៅរបស់លោក ត្រាំងឆាត ប៊ុត ដែលមានចំណងជើងថា “កម្ពុជាក្រោម អំណាច គ្មានខ្មែរក្រោម” ដូច្នេះ ខ្ញុំសំណូមពរដល់រដ្ឋាភិបាល មិនគួរយល់ព្រមតាមសំណើររបស់ភាគីវៀតណាម ទ្បើយ។ លទ្ធផលនៃការបោះឆ្នោតនាពេលខាងមុខនេះ និងមានផលអវិជ្ជមានចំពោះរដ្ឋាភិបាលជាមិនខាន ប្រសិនបើរដ្ឋាភិបាលមិនមានការថ្លឹងថ្លែងយ៉ាងល្អិតល្អន់ទេនោះ។

រដ្ឋាភិបាលកម្ពុជានិងវៀតណាម បានឯកភាពគ្នាស្នើអ្នកឯកទេសបារាំង មកជួយលើការផ្ទេរខ្នាតផែនទី

 

បានផ្សាយ​ក្នុង ចំណេះដឹងទូទៅ | បញ្ចេញមតិ

Ten Traditional Chinese Herbs

There are about 600 different herbs commonly used today. Their functions range from strengthening the immune system to fighting tumors. Here are some of the most commonly used Chinese herbs.

  1. The flower of Albizzia and its bark is used to soothe the mood of the person because of its calming properties. It is often used for those who are in the middle of emotional difficulty.
  2. Alisma strengthens water metabolism in the body and is used to reduce weight. It can also be useful for those who have urination problems and who suffer from diabetes.
  3. Used as a means to boost the immune system, the Astralagus is an herb that has been used in China for about 4000 years. It helps the blood cells perform beyond their usual capacity.
  4. Black & Red Reishi Mushrooms are prized herbs in Chinese herbal medicine. They are used to strengthen the immune system and increase the effects of antioxidants. Overall, these mushrooms have a calming effect.
  5. Ephedra has been in use for over 5000 years. It is used to improve blood pressure, to treat asthma and to enhance the heart function. Ephedra also has the function of increasing the production of adrenalin.
  6. Ginko Biloba has been used in the practice of TCM since its inception. It is used to improve the performance of the lungs and the heart. Other effects include reduction of inflammation and the supplementing of nutrition.
  7. Ginseng is a root that enhances healing in the body. It has the ability to replenish body fluids and increase energy. It is also believed to remove toxins and stimulate the sex glands.
  8. Licorice root is a well-known Chinese herb because it is often used to detoxify the body. It also invigorates and cools down the body. Licorice root can be used as a natural sweetener.
  9. The lotus seed tones the vital organs such as the spleen and kidney. It can also help in stimulating the appetite.
  10. Prepared Aconite is a Chinese herb that has to be used expertly. When the dosage is excessive, it can become toxic. It is also poisonous when it is taken raw. Prepared Aconite can be used to help patients with fertility problems and also those suffering from arthritis and rheumatism.raw_herbs
បានផ្សាយ​ក្នុង ចំណេះដឹងទូទៅ | បញ្ចេញមតិ

រពិសដៃផ្ទៃឆ្អែត?

YOON-CHANG-JUNG-FIRED-SOUTH-KOREA-large

យូន ចាង ជុង អ្នកនាំពាក្យរបស់រដ្ឋាភិបាលកូរ៉ខាងត្បូង

យូន ចាង ជុង (Yoon Chang Jung) អ្នកនាំពាក្យ​របស់ រដ្ឋាភិបាលកូរ៉េខាងត្បូង​ត្រូវបានបញ្ឈប់ ពីការងារ បន្ទាប់ពីរឿង​អាស្រូវចោទប្រកាន់ពីបទ យកដៃស្ទាប គូទ​ស្រ្តីជនជាតិអាមេរិកាំងដើម កំណើតកូរ៉េម្នាក់​ដោយគ្មានការអនុញ្ញាត្តិពីនាង នៅក្នុងបារមួយកន្លែង​ក្នុងទីក្រុងវ៉ាស៊ីនតោន ក្នុងយប់ថ្ងៃអង្គារ៍ កំទ្បុង​ពេលទស្សនៈកិច្ចជាផ្លូវ​ការរបស់លោកស្រី​ប្រធាននាធិបតី​កូរ៉េខាងត្បូង Park Geun-hye នៅក្នុងថ្ងៃទី៥-៩ខែ​ឧសភា ២០១៣។

ទោះបីជាមានការសុំទោសជាផ្លូវការយ៉ាងណាក៏ដោយ ហើយបើទោះជាគាត់មិនបានប្រព្រឹត្តពិត​មែនក៏ដោយ តើវាមានផលចំណេញអ្វីទៅ នៅពេលមន្រ្តីជាន់ខ្ពស់ថ្នាក់ជាតិម្នាក់របស់រដ្ឋាភិបាល​ប្រទេសមួយ បែរជាទៅ​ចូលក្នុងបារ ផឹកស៊ីសប្បាយជាមួយស្រ្តីដែលក្មេងជាងខ្លួន ដែលជាអាយុ​ប្រហាក់ប្រហែលនិងអាយុកូនៗរបស់គាត់នោះ? ហើយនៅពេលមានការចោទដូច្នោះ គឺវាពិត ជាទង្វើ​មួយដ៍អាម៉ាស់បំផុត​សម្រាប់មុខមាត់របស់ប្រទេសជាតិ និងក្រុមគ្រួសារ។

បានផ្សាយ​ក្នុង ចំណេះដឹងទូទៅ | មតិ 3

តើវាជាកំហុសរបស់អ្នកណាគេ?

People rescue garment workers on Wednesday, April 24, after the building caved in, leaving a chaotic mass of broken concrete and twisted metal

People rescue garment workers on Wednesday, April 24, after the building caved in, leaving a chaotic mass of broken concrete and twisted metal

ភាពសោកសង្រែងរបស់គ្រួសារសពនិងជនរងគ្រោះជាច្រើន ដែលរងគ្រោះដោយសារអគារ ពាណិជ្ជ​កម្ម Rana Plaza នៅជាយក្រុងដាកាប្រទេសបង់ក្លាដេស បានបាក់រំលំជាងពីរសប្តាហ៍ កន្លងមកនេះ​បានបណ្តោយឲ្យមាន​មនុស្សស្លាប់ប្រមាណជាង១០០០នាក់ហើយ នេះបើយោង តាមសារព័ត៌មាន​អន្តរជាតិ CNN និង Reuter នៅថ្ងៃនេះ (១០ ឧសភា ២០១៣) ហើយបានធ្វើឲ្យ មានការចាប់អារម្មណ៍​យ៉ាងខ្លាំងពី​សំណាក់សហគមន៍អន្តរ​ជាតិ ជាពិសេសសម្រាប់អ្នកបញ្ជា ទិញសម្លៀកបំពាក់នៅ​សហគមន៍អឺរ៉ុ និងសហរដ្ឋអាមេរិក ដោយសារ​ប្រទេសនេះ គឺជាប្រទេស មួយដែលនាំចេញសម្លៀក​បំពាក់ ដែលមានតម្លៃថោកនាំមុខគេលំដាប់ទីពីរនៅក្នុងពិភព​លោក បន្ទាប់ពីចិន។

អត្រាមនុស្សស្លាប់ដ៍ច្រើនយ៉ាងនេះ គឺបណ្តាលកង្វះបទដ្ឋានសុវត្ថិភាព អាចមិនមានបទបញ្ជា​ត្រួតពិនិត្យ រឺក៏មិនមានការត្រួតពិនិត្យជាប្រចាំ នូវសំណង់អគារដែលបានសាងសង់រួចហើយ កម្រិតយល់​ដឹងអំពីបទដ្ឋានសុខភាព និងសុវត្ថិភាព មិនត្រូវ​បានគេធ្វើការផ្សព្វផ្សាយដល់កម្មករ​និយោជិតឲ្យបាន​ទូលំទូលាយ អាចបណ្តាលមកពី​ភាពមិនប្រក្រតីមួយនៅក្នុងបណ្តាស្ថាប័នដែល​ជាប់ពាក់ព័ន្ធ។

ថ្វីបើមានការចាប់ខ្លួនម្ចាស់អគារ Rana Plaza និងជនពាក់ព័ន្ធមួយចំនួន និងរោងចក្រមួយចំនួន ត្រូវបានប្រកាសឲ្យផ្អាកដំណើរការក្នុងមួយរយះពេលក៏ដោយ ប្រសិនបើបទដ្ឋានសុវត្ថិភាព​មិនត្រូវបាន​គេដាក់ឲ្យអនុវត្តប្រកបដោយភាពតឹងរ៉ឹង ហើយបើមិនមានមន្រ្តីអធិការកិច្ចការងារ និងការត្រួតពិនិត្យ​មើលលក្ខខណ្ឌការងារពីសំណាក់សវនកររបស់ មកពីក្រុមហ៊ុនបញ្ជាទិញ និងអង្គការក្រៅរដ្ឋាភិបាល មួយចំនួននោះទេ បញ្ហាទាំងនេះនិងកើតមានទ្បើងនៅពេលក្រោយ​ទៀតដដែល។ តួយ៉ាងដូចជាកាល​ពីចុងឆ្នាំ២០១២ មានបញ្ហាអគ្គិភ័យកើតទ្បើងនៅក្នុងរោងចក្រ​មួយកន្លែង នៅជាយក្រុងដាកាប្រទេស​បង់ក្លាដេស ដែលបានសម្រាប់មនុស្សច្រើនជាង១០០នាក់ ហើយ​បើ​រាប់ចាប់តាំង​ពី​ឆ្នាំ​២០០៦​មក មាន​កម្មករ​កាត់ដេរ​យ៉ាងតិច ៥០០នាក់ បាន​បាត់បង់​ជីវិត​ដោយ​អគ្គិភ័យ​ក្នុង​រោងចក្រ (ប្រភព សារព័ត៌មានបារាំង RFI )។

ទីបំផុតអ្នករងគ្រោះនៅតែជាកម្មករដែលមិនមានកំហុស ហើយការទទួលខុសត្រូវទាំងអស់នេះត្រូវទម្លាក់ទៅលើអ្នកណា?

បានផ្សាយ​ក្នុង ចំណេះដឹងទូទៅ | បញ្ចេញមតិ

GOAL SETTING

 

smart goal setting concept

 

Specific: the goal must be specific as to what we want to achieve. By the end of 2010, our gross margins will increase 15%. The goal should clearly define the specific result we want to achieve.

Measurable: a goal which is not measurable cannot be achieved. We want to improve customer service is not a sufficient goal – if we cannot measure our result, it is not a goal. We want to improve customer service by 35% as measured by our quarterly survey is a measurable goal.

Attainable: the goal should be ambitious, but attainable. If your company has only ever served 2,000 customers in a given year and you set a goal to serve 20,000 customers (without some significant change in company size or budget), you are likely to fail. If you have served 2,000 customers for several years, perhaps serving 3,000 customers isn’t that much of a stretch.Make your goals ambitious, but achievable.

Relevant: goals should be relevant to your vision and mission. If you’re Best Buy, setting a corporate goal to increase clothing apparel sales is a poor choice. We worked with a banking software development firm that was setting goals regarding their customers’ growth and not their own. These goals are not directly relevant to what the company was doing – they could not control whether or not their clients grow. All they could control was growing their own client base.

Time-bound: your goals should have a definitive start and end. A goal with no end date will continually be moved. Committing to a due date will allow employees to create milestones to achieve on the way to that goal.

បានផ្សាយ​ក្នុង ចំណេះដឹងទូទៅ | បញ្ចេញមតិ

វិហារយ៉ាស៊ូគូនី នៅប្រទេសជប៉ុន

វិហារ​យ៉ាស៊ូគូនី គឺជាវិហារស៊ិនតុ ដែលមានទីតាំងនៅក្នុងឈីយូដាទីក្រុងតូក្យូប្រទេសជប៉ុន​។ វិហារនេះត្រូវបានឧទ្ទិសដល់ទាហាន ហើយនិងជនទាំងទ្បាយដែលបានពលីជីវិតនៅក្នុងការ ប្រយុទ្ធ ក្នុងនាមព្រះចៅអធិរាជនៃប្រទេសជប៉ុន។ បច្ចុប្បន្នេះ ការចុះឈ្មោះជានិមិត្តរូបនៃអាទិទេព បានរាយ​នាមលើសពីចំនួន២៤៦៦០០០នៃចំនួនបុរសនិងស្រ្តីដែលជីវិតរបស់ពួកគេបានឧទ្ទិស ទៅដល់ការ​បម្រើ​​ដល់ប្រទេសជប៉ុនចក្រពត្តិ ជាពិសេសឧទ្ទិសដល់ជនទាំងទ្បាយណាដែលបាន ពលីនៅក្នុងសម័យ​សង្គ្រាម។ វិហារនេះក៏ជាជម្រកដល់សារៈមន្ទីរសង្គ្រាមជប៉ុនមួយចំនួនដែរ ដែលឧទ្ទិសដល់សង្គ្រាម​លោកលើកទី២។ ហើយក៏មានរូបសំណាក់ដែលជាការរំលឹកដល់ម្តាយ និងសត្វពាហនៈទាំងទ្បាយ ដែលបានពលីនៅក្នុងសង្គ្រាមផងដែរ។ វិហារនេះ ក៏បានទាក់ទាញ នូវរឿងចម្រូងចម្រះសម្រាប់ការ តម្កល់ទុកនូវឧក្រិដ្ឋកម្មសង្គ្រាមចាប់តាំងពីសង្គ្រាមលោកលើក ទីពីរមក។

ឈ្មោះដើមរបស់វិហារ​យ៉ាស៊ូគូនី​គឺ សូកូសាដែលត្រូវបានស្ថាបនាទ្បើងនៅឯគឺដាននៅក្នុង​ទីក្រុងតូក្យូនៅក្នុងឆ្នាំទីពីរនៃសម័យកាលម៉ីជិ(១៨៦៩)ដោយមរតកសាសន៍របស់ព្រះចៅអធិរាជម៉ីជិ។ នៅក្នុងឆ្នាំ ១៨៧៩ សូកូសាត្រូវបានដាក់ឈ្មោះសាជាថ្មីថាវិហារ​យ៉ាស៊ូគូនី​។

នៅពេលដែលព្រះចៅអធិរាជម៉ីជិ ធ្វើព្រះរាជទស្សនៈកិច្ចនៅតូក្យូសូកូសាជាលើកដំបូងនៅ ថ្ងៃទី២៧ ខែមករា ឆ្នាំ១៨៧៤ ព្រះអង្គទ្រង់បានតាក់តែងនូវកំណាព្យមួយឃ្លាថា “ យើងសូម​សន្យាដល់អ្នកទាំង​ទ្បាយណាដែលបានធ្វើការប្រយុទ្ធហើយនិងបានពលីជីវិតសម្រាប់​ប្រទេសជាតិខ្លួន ឈ្មោះរបស់អ្នកនិងត្រូវបានគេចងចាំទុកជារៀងរហូតនៅព្រះវិហារនេះ​ក្នុងមូសាស៊ីណូ ” ដូចលោកអ្នកបាន​ឃើញស្រាប់ហើយថានៅក្នុងកំណាព្យនេះ វិហារ​យ៉ាស៊ូគូនី​ត្រូវបានស្ថាបនាទ្បើងដើម្បីជាការរម្លឹកដល់​វិញ្ញាណខ័ន អ្នកដែលបានពលីជិវិតក្នុងការប្រយុទ្ធ ហើយនិងជាការផ្តល់កិត្តិយសដល់សមិទ្ធផលរបស់​ជនទាំងនោះដែលបានលះបង់នូវជីវិត​ដ៍មានតម្លៃរបស់ពួកគេសម្រាប់ប្រទេសជាតិ។ ឈ្មោះ “យ៉ាស៊ូគូនី” ត្រូវបាន ព្រះរាជប្រទាន​ដោយព្រះចៅអធិរាជម៉ីជិដែលជាតំណាងនូវសព្ទសាធុការពរ​សម្រាប់ការការពារសុខ សន្តិភាពដល់ប្រទេសជាតិ។

បានផ្សាយ​ក្នុង ចំណេះដឹងទូទៅ | បញ្ចេញមតិ

ខ្ញុំចូលចិត្តសន្សំសៀវភៅទុក

អស់រយះពេលប៉ុន្មានឆ្នាំចុងក្រោយនេះ ខ្ញុំហាក់ដូចជា ដឹងខ្លួនឯងថា ខ្ញុំចូលចិត្តសៀវភៅប៉ុន្តែខ្ញុំ ហាក់​ដូចជា មិនសូវចូលចិត្តអានវាប៉ុន្មានទេ។ ប្រសិនបើអ្នកនៅខាងក្រៅមើលទៅ វាហាក់ដូចជា ខ្ញុំចូលចិត្ត​ការអានសៀវភៅអញ្ចឹង។ ខ្ញុំព្យាយាមទម្លាប់ ធ្វើខ្លួនក្នុងការអាន ខ្ញុំព្យាយាមស្រទ្បាញ់ការ អាន ។ ប៉ុន្តែនៅក្នុងអំទ្បុងពេលនៃការអាន អារម្មណ៍របស់ខ្ញុំ ហាក់ដូចជាមិនសូវនៅជាមួយការ អានប៉ុន្មានទេ ហើយភាគច្រើននៃសៀវភៅដែលខ្ញុំបានទិញ គឺខ្ញុំបានអានតែប៉ុន្មានទំព័រតែ ប៉ុណ្ណោះ។

តែទោះជាយ៉ាងណាក៏ដោយ ខ្ញុំក៏នៅតែរក្សាការ ទិញសៀវភៅពីបណ្ណាគារមកអានជារៀងរាល់ខែ ហើយវាបានជម្រុញចិត្តរបស់ខ្ញុំឲ្យស្រទ្បាញ់សៀវភៅទោះជាភាសាខ្មែរ រឺក៏ភាសាអង់គ្លេស ក៏ដោយ ហើយខ្ញុំតែងតែប្តេជ្ញាក្នុងចិត្តរបស់ខ្ញុំថា ខ្ញុំនឹងបន្តទិញវាជារៀងរាល់ខែ ទោះបីខ្ញុំកំពុងស្ថិត នៅក្នុង ស្ថានភាពសេដ្ឋកិច្ចមិនរឹងមាំយ៉ាងណាក៏ដោយ។ ខ្ញុំមិនដឹងខ្លួនឯងទេថា ហេតុអ្វីបានជា ខ្ញុំត្រូវបន្តធ្វើ ដូច្នេះ? រឺមួយប្រហែលមកពីនិស្ស័យចូលចិត្តសន្សំរបស់របរទុកជាអនុស្សាវរីយ៍ របស់ខ្ញុំ? ខ្ញុំចូលចិត្ត​សន្សំទុកនូវវត្ថុអនុស្សាវរីយ៍ដែលក្រុមគ្រួសារ ឬមិត្តភ័ក្រ្តបានផ្តល់ឲ្យ ហើយខ្ញុំ មិនហ៊ានយកមកប្រើ​ប្រាស់ទេ។ ទាំងនោះគឺជារបស់មានតម្លៃខ្លាំងណាស់ចំពោះរូបខ្ញុំ ត្បិតវត្ថុ ទាំងនោះមិនសូវមានតម្លៃក៏​ដោយសម្រាប់ក្រសែភ្នែករបស់អ្នកដទៃ។ ហើយពួកគាត់ទាំងនោះ តែងតែនិយាយមកកាន់ខ្ញុំថា ហេតុអ្វីមិនប្រើវត្ថុទាំងនោះ? ខ្ញុំក៏បានឆ្លើយតបដោយខ្លីថា

“ខ្ញុំចង់ទុកវាមើល សម្រាប់ថ្ងៃក្រោយ”

ខ្ញុំមិន​បានដឹងទេថា ក្នុងចិត្តរបស់ពួកគាត់កំពុងគិត អ្វីទេនៅពេលនោះ នៅពេលលឺចម្លើយរបស់ខ្ញុំ។

បានផ្សាយ​ក្នុង ចំណេះដឹងទូទៅ | មតិ 3

Will The Third World War Be Happened?

I wish it could not be happened. but i cannot still keep thinking about it while many medias reporting about between middle east war especially Syrian Civil War, which has been from the uprising to remove Bashar Al Assad from the power since 2011, is getting worse and worse from day to day. i am afraid of the situation which will be developed day by day because of the intervention between democratic and communist bloc through ideology of those.

Many weapons have been bought from Communist bloc and much communication & technical equipment has been provided to Syrian rebel, which was accused as terrorist group by Al Assad regime, by western country. The number of died people increasing day by day while the battle of controlling the capital cities, Damascus and Aleppo is being conducted.

Meanwhile Iran is most worried country for the world because of its controversy nuclear program which has been said by Iran that it is used for the peaceful purpose only but while IAEA wants to conduct the inspection, it was rejected by Iran. If it’s still rejected for inspection from IAEA, it will be as allegation from the West that the nuclear program will be used for military purpose for sure. As I used to read an article from media which it was wrote that Iran will destroy Israel from the world map. So it is clear that if Iran won’t allow the inspection from IAEA, the military nuclear program might be true as the allegation from the west. So why does Iran want to do that? It might be because Israel is its long time enemy. Israel also threatens that they will fight if Iran won’t stop its nuclear program. Why does Israel dare to fight with Iran? It’s easy because the United States is Israel’s ally  and I believe that if Israel & the united states cooperate to fight Iran, Iran is a piece of cake for them. But Iran also has its own allies such Russia, China, Syria….then imagine what will happen if those join fighting with Iran?

Apart from Middle East, it is about the dispute over the islands between China with some members of Southeast Asian countries such as Vietnam, Philippines,….etc. and China with Taiwan, China with Japan. What I am worried the most is all the dispute sides with China are allies to the United States. And another dispute between Russia with Japan is the most worried  also.

បានផ្សាយ​ក្នុង ចំណេះដឹងទូទៅ | បញ្ចេញមតិ